Research and Links

Dr. Irene Pepperberg has been studying the intelligence and reasoning abilities of the African Grey parrot for almost 40 years. She has published consistently and extensively in some of the most highly respected scientific journals in her field.

Below is a partial list of her papers with links to download in PDF format. If you don’t have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is necessary to view PDF files, you can download it free by clicking here.

These papers are being provided for private use only, and cannot be published or reprinted without the express permission of the publisher. Quotes from these articles can be used only within the specifications of each publisher. Please consult the individual publishers about their particular guidelines.

We hope you’ll enjoy reading some of Dr. Pepperberg’s research, which has demonstrated the amazing intelligence of African Grey parrots to the scientific world. The list of papers available for download will be expanded as time permits.

 

Publications:

 

Pepperberg, I.M. (2021). How do a pink plastic flamingo and a pink plastic elephant differ? Evidence for abstract representations of the relations same-different in a Grey parrot. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 37, 146-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2020.12.010


Pailian, H., Carey, S., Halberta, J, Feigenson, L., & Pepperberg, I.M. (2020). Age and species comparisons of visual mental manipulation ability as evidence for its development and evolution. Special issue of Scientific Reports, 10, Article number: 7689, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-64666-1


Cornero, F.M., Harstfield, LA., & Pepperberg, I.M. (2020). Piagetian liquid overconservation in Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). J. Comp. Psychol., 143:197-210. doi:10.1037/com0000209


Pepperberg, I.M. (2020a). The comparative psychology of intelligence: Some thirty years later. In special issue of Frontiers in Psychology: Comparative Psychology, D. Scarf, ed, 11:973. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg. 2020.00973


Pepperberg, I.M. (2020b) Vocal communication in nonhuman animals: View from the wings. In special issue of Animal Behavior and Cognition, “Communication in Nonhumans: The Forty Year Anniversary of Seyfarth, Cheney and Marler”, 7(2), 95-100. doi: 10.26451/abc.07.02.03.2020.


Pepperberg, I.M. (2020c) Human-avian comparisons in cognitive performance. Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior, L. Workman, W. Reader, & J. Barkow, eds., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-13.


Pepperberg, I.M., Gray, S.L., Cornero, F.M., Mody, S., & Carey, S. (2019). Logical reasoning by a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus)? A case study of the disjunctive syllogism. Behaviour 156:409-445.


Pepperberg, I.M. (2019a). Animal sentience is not enough to motivate conservation. Commentary on Chapman, C.A., & Huffman, M.A. (2018). Why do we want to think humans are different? Animal Sentience 21(3). https://animalstudiesrepository.org/animsent/vol3/iss23/22/


Pepperberg, I.M. (2019b). Grey parrots: Studies in avian cognition. Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, 2nd ed. J. Choe, ed., Oxford, pp. 83-89.


Clements, K., Gray, S.L., Gross, B., & Pepperberg, I.M. (2018). Initial evidence for probabilistic learning by a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). J. Comp. Psychol. 132:166-177. doi: 10.1037/ com0000106


Pepperberg, I.M. (2018a). Grey parrots: Cognitive and communicative abilities. A Practical Guide to Animal Cognition, N. Bueno & F. Amici, eds, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press


Pepperberg, I.M. (2018b/2019). Tool use in Goffin’s cockatoos: shape/frame matching. Learning & Behavior, 47:1-2.


Pepperberg, I.M. (2018c). Zero concept. Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior and Cognition, J. Vonk & T. Schackelford (Eds.). Springer.


Pepperberg, I.M. (2018d). Cardinality. Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior and Cognition, J. Vonk & T. Schackelford (Eds.). Springer.


Pepperberg, I.M., Gray, S., Lesser, J.S., & Hartsfield, L.A. (2017). Piagetian liquid conservation in Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). J. Comp. Psychol. 131:370-383. 10.1037/com0000085


Pepperberg, I.M. (2017a). Alex the Parrot. In J. Vonk & T.K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior, Springer


Pepperberg, I.M. (2017b). “Birdbrains” should not be ignored in studying the evolution of G. Commentary, Behav. Brain Sci, 40: e216. DOI: /10.1017/S0140525X16001758


Pepperberg, I.M. (2017c) Review of studies on visual perception in Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus: The Müller-Lyer illusion, modal and amodal completion. Animal Behavior & Cognition, 4(3):378-395.Special issue on “Comparative Perception”. doi:10.12966/abc.08.0X.2017


Pepperberg, I.M. (2017d) Avian numerical cognition. In Avian Cognition, S. Healy & C. ten Cate (Eds.), Cambridge University Press.


Call, J., Burghardt, G.M., Pepperberg, I.M., Snowdon, C.T., & Zentall, T.R. (2017). What is comparative psychology? In APA Handbook of Comparative Psychology, J. Call, I.M. Pepperberg, C.T. Snowdon, T.R. Zentall (Eds), American Psychological Association Press


Pepperberg, I.M. (2017e). Symbolic communication in nonhumans. In APA Handbook of Comparative Psychology, J. Call, I.M. Pepperberg, C.T. Snowdon, T.R. Zentall (Eds), American Psychological Association Press


Pepperberg, I.M. (2017f). Interspecific communication. In APA Handbook of Comparative Psychology, J. Call, I.M. Pepperberg, C.T. Snowdon, T.R. Zentall (Eds), American Psychological Association Press


Griebel, U., Pepperberg, I.M., Oller, D.K. (2016) Developmental plasticity and language: A comparative perspective. Topics in Cognitive Science 8:435-445.


Pepperberg, I. M. (2016). Animal language studies: What happened? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Psychon Bull Rev. doi:10.3758/s13423-016-1101-y


Pepperberg, I. M., & Nakayama, K. (2016). Robust representation of shape in a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Cognition, 153, 146-160. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.04.014


Koepke, A. E., Gray, S. L., & Pepperberg, I. M. (2015). Delayed gratification: A grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) will wait for a better reward. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 129(4), 339-346. doi:10.1037/a0039553


Pepperberg, I. M. (2015). Reply to Jaakkola (2014): “Do animals understand invisible displacement? A critical review”. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 129(2), 198-201. doi:10.1037/a0038319


Pepperberg, I. M., & Hartsfield, L. A. (2014). Can Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) succeed on a “complex” foraging task failed by nonhuman primates (Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii, Sapajus apella) but solved by wrasse fish (Labroides dimidiatus)? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128(3), 298-306. doi:10.1037/a0036205


Péron, F., Thornberg, L., Gross, B., Gray, S., & Pepperberg, I. M. (2014). Human–Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) reciprocity: A follow-up study. Animal Cognition Anim Cogn, 17(4), 937-944. doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0726-3


Pepperberg, I. M., Koepke, A., Livingston, P., & Hartsfield, L. A. (2013). Reasoning by inference: Further studies on exclusion in grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e598032013-086


Pepperberg, I. M. (2012). Further evidence for addition and numerical competence by a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Animal Cognition Anim Cogn, 15(4), 711-717. doi:10.1007/s10071-012-0470-5


Pepperberg, I.M., Carey, S. (2012). Grey Parrot Number Acquisition: The Inference of Cardinal Value from Ordinal Position on the Numeral List COGNIT2474


Péron, F., John, M., Sapowicz, S., Bovet, D., & Pepperberg, I. M. (2012). A study of sharing and reciprocity in grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Animal Cognition Anim Cogn, 16(2), 197-210. doi:10.1007/s10071-012-0564-0


Schachner, A., Brady, T. F., Pepperberg, I. M., & Hauser, M. D. (2009). Spontaneous Motor Entrainment to Music in Multiple Vocal Mimicking Species. Current Biology, 19(10), 831-836. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.03.061


Pepperberg, I.M., Vicinay, J., Cavanagh, P. (2008) The Muller-Lyer illusion is processed by a Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Perception 37:765-781.


Pepperberg, I.M. (2007a). Grey parrots do not always “parrot”: Phonological awareness and the creation of new labels from existing vocalizations. Language Sciences 29: 1-13.


Pepperberg, I.M. (2006a). Ordinality and inferential abilities of a Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus)Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120: 205-216.


Pepperberg, I.M. (2006b). Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) numerical abilities: addition and further experiments on a  zero-like concept. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120: 1-11.


Pepperberg, I.M., and Gordon, J.D. (2005). Number Comprehension by a Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus), Including a Zero-Like ConceptJournal of Comparative. Psychology, 2005, Vol. 119, No. 2, 197-209


Pepperberg, I.M. (2001). Lessons from cognitive ethology: Animal models for ethological computing. Proceedings of the First Conference on Epigenetic Robotics, C. Balkenius, J. Zlatev, H. Kozima, K. Dautenhahn, & C. Breazeal, Eds., Lund University Cognitive Science Series No. 85, Lund, Sweden (online only)


Pepperberg, I.M., Willner, M.R., and Gravitz, L.B. (1997). Development of Piagetian object permanence in a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). J. Comp. Psych. 111:63-75.

 

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